DNA Damage, Repair, Replication and Transcription

DNA repair may be an assortment of processes by that a cell identifies and corrects injury to the deoxyribonucleic acid molecules that write its order. In human cells, each traditional metabolic activities and environmental factors like radiation will cause deoxyribonucleic acid injury, leading to as several as one million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. Several of those lesions cause structural injury to the deoxyribonucleic acid molecule and might alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the sequence that the affected deoxyribonucleic acid encodes. The deoxyribonucleic acid repair ability of a cell is important to the integrity of its order and so to the conventional practicality of that organism. Several genes that were about to shown to influence life have clad to be concerned in deoxyribonucleic acid injury repair and protection. DNA damage, owing to environmental factors and traditional metabolic processes within the cell, happens at a rate of 10 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. In biology, deoxyribonucleic acid replication is that the process of manufacturing 2 identical replicas of deoxyribonucleic acid from one original deoxyribonucleic acid molecule. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerases square measure a family of enzymes that do all types of deoxyribonucleic acid replication.

The replication fork may be a structure that forms inside the nucleus throughout deoxyribonucleic acid replication. It’s created by helicases that break the element bonds holding the 2 deoxyribonucleic acid strands along. Transcription is that the opening moves of organic phenomenon, during which a specific phase of deoxyribonucleic acid is derived into ribonucleic acid (especially mRNA) by the protein ribonucleic acid enzyme. The stretch of deoxyribonucleic acid transcribed into a ribonucleic acid molecule is named a transcription unit and encodes a minimum of one sequence. 

  • Sources of damage
  • Translesion synthesis
  • Eukaryotic transcriptional responses to DNA damage
  • DNA repair and Aging
  • DNA repair Technology
  • Replication machinery
  • Transcription factories

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