Call for Abstract
Global Meet on Immunology, Hematology & Molecular Biology, will be organized around the theme “Molecular Evolution to Advanced Immunology Research”
Immunology Meet 2018 is comprised of 27 tracks and 157 sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that address current issues in Immunology Meet 2018.
Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks. All related abstracts are accepted.
Register now for the conference by choosing an appropriate package suitable to you.
- Track 1-1Ageing
- Track 1-2Biotechnology
- Track 1-3Clinical Laboratory Immunology
- Track 1-4Immuodermatology
- Track 1-5Immunohematology
- Track 1-6Immunotoxicology
- Track 1-7Mucosal Immunity
Hypersensitivity may be a set of undesirable reactions created by the conventional system, as well as allergies and pathology. They’re typically brought up as associate over- reaction of the system and these reactions could also be damaging, uncomfortable, or often fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions need a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host. Free antigens cross link the immune serum globulin on mast cells and basophils that causes a unleash of vasoactive biomolecules. Testing will be done via diagnostic assay for specific immune serum globulin.
- Track 2-1Drug Allergy
- Track 2-2Food Allergy
- Track 2-3Contact Dermatitis
- Track 2-4Latex Allergy
- Track 2-5Allergic Asthma
- Track 2-6Seasonal Allergies
- Track 2-7Animal Allergies
- Track 2-8Anaphylaxis
Immune system disorders cause abnormally low activity or over activity of the system. In cases of system over activity, the body attacks and damages its own tissues (autoimmune diseases). Immune deficiency diseases decrease the body's ability to fight invaders, inflicting vulnerability to infections.
- Track 3-1Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Track 3-2Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- Track 3-3Multiple Sclerosis
- Track 3-4Diabetes Mellitus
- Track 3-5Guillain-Barre Syndrome
- Track 3-6Psoriasis
- Track 3-7Myasthenia gravis
- Track 3-8Vasculitis
Congenital immunological disorder is gift at the time of birth, and is that the results of genetic defects. These immunological disorder disorders also are known as primary immunodeficiency. Despite the fact that over seventy differing types of no inheritable immunological disorder disorders are known, they seldom occur. No heritable immunological disorder is a lot of common than no inheritable immunological disorder. It’s the results of an infectious method or different sickness.
For instance, the human immunological disorder virus (HIV) is that the virus that causes no heritable immunological disorder syndrome (AIDS). Congenital immunological disorder is caused by genetic defects that typically occur whereas the craniate is developing within the female internal reproductive organ. These defects have an effect on the event and/or operate of 1 or a lot of the elements of the system. No heritable immunological disorder is that the results of a sickness method and it happen later in life. The causes, as represented on top of, are diseases, infections, or the facet effects of medicine given to treat different conditions. Usually, the primary sign that an individual may need an immunological disorder is that they are doing not improve speedily once given Antibiotics to treat an infection. There’s no cure for immunological disorder disorders. Medical aid is geared toward dominant infections and, for a few disorders, replacement defective or absent elements. There are no thanks to stop a no inheritable immune-deficiency disorder. However, somebody with a no inheritable immunological disorder would possibly wish to contemplate obtaining genetic direction before having youngsters to seek out if there's an opportunity they're going to pass the defect on to their youngsters.
- Track 4-1T cells
- Track 4-2Cernunnos Deficiency
- Track 4-3Ca++ Channel Deficiency
- Track 4-4Activated PI3K Delta Syndrome
- Track 4-5Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome
- Track 4-6DiGeorge syndrome
- Track 4-7Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
- Track 4-8Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis
This was the active response of the body attempting to take care of its integrity. Medical specialty ties in with the fields of medical specialty and drugs. It studies the connection between the body systems, pathogens, and immunity. The earliest written mention of immunity is derived back to the plague of Athens in 430 BCE. Thucydides noted that folks United Nations agency had recovered from a previous bout of the sickness might nurse the sick while not catching the health problem a second time. The study of the molecular and cellular elements that comprise the system, as well as their perform and interaction, is that the central science of medical specialty.
- Track 5-1Immunoglobulin
- Track 5-2Human growth and development
- Track 5-3Phagocytosis
- Track 5-4Hormones regulating Immunity
- Track 5-5Hormones regulating Immunity
Immune Tolerance may be a state of quality of the system to substances or tissue that has the capability to elicit Associate in nursing reaction in given organism. It contrasts with standard immune-mediated elimination of foreign antigens. Tolerance is assessed into central tolerance or peripheral tolerance. The mechanisms by that these types of tolerance area unit established area unit distinct, however the ensuing result is comparable. Immune tolerance is vital for traditional physiology. Central tolerance is that the main manner the system learns to discriminate self from non-self. Peripheral tolerance is essential to preventing over-reactivity of the system to numerous environmental entities.
- Track 6-1Immunosuppression
- Track 6-2T and B lymphocytes
- Track 6-3Granzyme or Perforin
- Track 6-4Allograft tolerance
- Track 6-5Fetal development
- Track 6-6Oral tolerance and Hypersensitivity
- Track 6-7Tumor Microenvironment
Virology is that the study of viruses, sub microscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in an exceedingly super molecule coat and virus like agents. It focuses on the subsequent aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways in which to infect and exploit host cells for copy, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in analysis and medical care. Medical specialty is taken into account to be a subfield of biological science or of drugs. A serious branch of medical specialty is virus classification. Viruses are classified in step with the host cell they infect: animal viruses, plant viruses, plant viruses, and bacteriophages. One main motivation for the study of viruses is that the indisputable fact that they cause several necessary infectious diseases, among them the communicable disease, influenza, rabies, measles, several sorts of looseness of the bowels, hepatitis, dengue, infectious disease, polio and AIDS.
- Track 7-1Host Defenses
- Track 7-2Viral Diseases
- Track 7-3Other uses of Viruses
- Track 7-4Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy
- Track 7-5Nanotechology
Molecular organic chemistry considerations the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules within the numerous systems of a cell, as well as the interactions between deoxyribonucleic acid, RNA, and proteins and their synthesis, moreover because the regulation of those interactions. Researchers in biological science use specific techniques native to biological science however more and more mix these with techniques and concepts from genetic science and organic chemistry. Biological science is that the study of molecular underpinnings of the processes of replication, transcription, translation, and cell perform.
- Track 8-1Biomolecules
- Track 8-2Carbohydrates as energy source
- Track 8-3Forensic Science
- Track 8-4Polymer Chemistry
- Track 8-5Environmental Impacts
Bioinformatics is Associate in nursing knowledge domain field that develops ways and package tools for understanding biological information. As Associate in nursing knowledge domain field of science, bioinformatics combines technology, biology, arithmetic, and engineering to analyse and interpret biological information.
It is used for in chemical element analyses of biological queries mistreatment mathematical and applied math techniques. Bioinformatics is each Associate in nursing umbrella term for the body of biological studies that use computer programing as a part of their methodology. Common uses of bioinformatics embody the identification of candidate genes and single ester polymorphisms (SNPs).
- Track 9-1Sequence Analysis
- Track 9-2Gene and Protein Expression
- Track 9-3Analysis of Cellular Organization
- Track 9-4Network and Systems Biology
- Track 9-5Artificial Intelligence
- Track 9-6Genome annotation
Genetics is that the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. Thought-about its typically thought-about a field of biology however intersects often with several alternative life sciences and is powerfully coupled with the study of knowledge systems. Genetic processes add combination with associate organism's setting and experiences to influence development and behaviour, usually brought up as nature versus nurture. The animate thing or extracellular setting of a cell or organism might switch sequence transcription on or off. Though genes were acknowledged to exist on chromosomes, chromosomes are composed of each super molecule and polymer, and scientists didn't apprehend that of the 2 is answerable for inheritance.
- Track 10-1Molecular Genetics
- Track 10-2Features of Inheritance
- Track 10-3Molecular Basis for Inheritance
- Track 10-4Gene expression
- Track 10-5Genetic change
Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, may be a specific chemical interaction between antibodies made by B cells of the white blood cells and antigens throughout immunologic response. The immune complicated is then transported to cellular systems wherever it are often destroyed or deactivated. There square measure many sorts of antibodies and antigens, and every protein are capable of binding solely to a selected substance. The specificity of the binding is owing to specific chemical constitution of every protein. The matter determinant or epitope is recognized by the paratope of the protein, placed at the variable region of the peptide chain. The variable region successively has hyper-variable regions those square measure distinctive organic compound sequences in every protein.
- Track 11-1Protein Purification
- Track 11-2Chemical basis of Antigen-Antibody Interaction
- Track 11-3Affinity of the Interaction
Cancer medicine is associate knowledge domain branch of biology that's involved with understanding the role of the system within the progression and development of cancer; the foremost well-known application is cancer therapy that utilises the system as a treatment for cancer. Immunoediting induces choice for sure growth cells that loose dominant growth-specific antigens permitting the tumour to progress. Its 3 main phases: elimination, equilibrium and escape. Professionals within the field have hypothesized that ‘apoptotic necrobiosis is poorly immunogenic whereas death necrobiosis is actually immunogenic. Varied strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) are found to play a vital role within the development of cervical cancer. Organ transplantation may be a process during which associate organ is off from one body and placed within the body of a recipient, to exchange a broken or missing organ. Organs that are with success transplanted embrace the centre, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus. Some organs, just like the brain, can't be transplanted. Medicine charts, measures, and contextualizes the: physiological functioning of the system in states of each health and diseases; malfunctions of the system in medical specialty disorders (such as response diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, and transplant rejection). Medicine has applications in varied disciplines of medication, notably within the fields of organ transplantation, oncology, virology, medicine, parasitology, psychiatry, and medical specialty.
- Track 12-1ABO-Incompatible Transplants
- Track 12-2Immunologic Mechanisms of Rejection
- Track 12-3Acute or Chronic Rejection
- Track 12-4Rejection due to non-adherence
- Track 12-5Rejection Detection
- Track 12-6Rejection Treatment
- Track 12-7Blood Transfer
DNA repair may be an assortment of processes by that a cell identifies and corrects injury to the deoxyribonucleic acid molecules that write its order. In human cells, each traditional metabolic activities and environmental factors like radiation will cause deoxyribonucleic acid injury, leading to as several as one million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. Several of those lesions cause structural injury to the deoxyribonucleic acid molecule and might alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the sequence that the affected deoxyribonucleic acid encodes. The deoxyribonucleic acid repair ability of a cell is important to the integrity of its order and so to the conventional practicality of that organism. Several genes that were about to shown to influence life have clad to be concerned in deoxyribonucleic acid injury repair and protection. DNA damage, owing to environmental factors and traditional metabolic processes within the cell, happens at a rate of 10 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. In biology, deoxyribonucleic acid replication is that the process of manufacturing 2 identical replicas of deoxyribonucleic acid from one original deoxyribonucleic acid molecule. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerases square measure a family of enzymes that do all types of deoxyribonucleic acid replication.
The replication fork may be a structure that forms inside the nucleus throughout deoxyribonucleic acid replication. It’s created by helicases that break the element bonds holding the 2 deoxyribonucleic acid strands along. Transcription is that the opening moves of organic phenomenon, during which a specific phase of deoxyribonucleic acid is derived into ribonucleic acid (especially mRNA) by the protein ribonucleic acid enzyme. The stretch of deoxyribonucleic acid transcribed into a ribonucleic acid molecule is named a transcription unit and encodes a minimum of one sequence.
- Track 13-1Sources of damage
- Track 13-2Translesion synthesis
- Track 13-3Eukaryotic transcriptional responses to DNA damage
- Track 13-4DNA repair and Aging
- Track 13-5DNA repair Technology
- Track 13-6Replication machinery
- Track 13-7Transcription factories
A biological research vector may be a little piece of polymer, taken from a pandemic, a plasmid, or the cell of a better organism, that may be stably maintained in an organism, and into that a distant polymer fragment is inserted for biological research functions. There square measure many varieties of biological research vectors; however the foremost ordinarily used ones square measure genetically designed plasmids. All biological research vectors have options that permit a cistron to be handily inserted into the vector or far away from it. A selectable marker is carried by the vector to permit the choice of completely reworked cells. A biological research vector needn't contain appropriate parts for the expression of a cloned target cistron, like a promoter and ribosomal binding web site (RBS); several but do, and should then work as AN expression vector. Plasmids square measure autonomously replicating circular extra-chromosomal polymer. The bacteriophages used for biological research square measure the virus λ and M13 virus.
- Track 14-1Features of a cloning vector
- Track 14-2Types of cloning vectors
- Track 14-3Gateway Technology
- Track 14-4Plant transformation vector
- Track 14-5Golden Gate Cloning
Veterinary medical specialty is that the study of all aspects of system in animals. It is a branch below life science and associated with zoological science and veterinary sciences. Interests embody malfunctions and disorders, however additionally health, of the system in animals. It’s inquisitive about however the system works, however vaccines stop malady and why vaccines generally don't work and cause adverse reactions.
Infection is that the invasion of Associate in nursing organism’s body tissues by malady inflicting agents, their multiplication, and therefore the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and therefore the toxins they manufacture. Infections are caused by infectious agents together with viruses, viroid’s, prions, bacteria, nematodes like parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods like ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi like fungal infection, and different macro parasites like tapeworms and different helminths. Infectious diseases are typically known as communicable disease once they are simply transmitted by contact with Associate in nursing sick person or their secretions. The symptoms of Associate in nursing infection rely upon the sort of malady. Some signs of infection have an effect on the complete body usually, like fatigue, loss of craving, weight loss, fevers, night sweats, chills, aches and pains. Others are specific to individual body elements, like skin rashes, coughing, or a fluid nose. Microorganism and infective agent infections will each cause identical forms of symptoms. It is tough to differentiate that is that the explanation for a selected infection.
- Track 16-1Inflammation
- Track 16-2Clostridium tetani
- Track 16-3Clostridium tetani
- Track 16-4Transmission
- Track 16-5Biochemical tests
Classical medical specialty ties in with the fields of medicine and drugs. It studies the connection between the body systems, pathogens, and immunity. The study of the molecular and cellular elements that comprise the system, together with their perform and interaction, is that the central science of medical specialty. The system has been divided into a lot of primitive innate system and, in vertebrates, Associate in Nursing no heritable or adaptation system. The latter is more divided into body substance (or antibody) and cell-mediated elements. Immunologic analysis continues to become a lot of specialised, following non-classical models of immunity and functions of cells, organs and systems not antecedent related to the system.
- Track 17-1Cell-Mediated immunity
- Track 17-2Humoral Immunity
- Track 17-3Innate Immunity
- Track 17-4Adaptive Immunity
- Track 17-5Antigens & Antibodies
- Track 17-6Lymphocytes
- Track 17-7 Inflammation
- Track 17-8Macrophages & Neutrophils
Human immunological disorder infection and purchased immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) may be a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunological disorder virus (HIV). Following initial infection, someone might not notice any symptoms nor could expertise a short amount of influenza-like unhealthiest. Typically, this is often followed by a chronic amount with no symptoms. because the infection progresses, it interferes additional with the system, increasing the danger of common infections like TB, furthermore as alternative timeserving infections, and tumors that seldom have an effect on people that have operating immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are said as no inheritable immunological disorder syndrome (AIDS). HIV is unfolding primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to kid throughout physiological condition, delivery, or breastfeeding. HIV/AIDS has had an excellent impact on society, each as associate unhealthiest and as a supply of discrimination. The initial symptoms are followed by a stage referred to as clinical latency, well HIV, or chronic HIV. HIV is transmitted by 3 main routes: sexual contact, vital exposure to infected body fluids or tissues and from mother to kid throughout physiological condition, delivery, or breastfeeding (known as vertical transmission). HIV/AIDS is diagnosed via laboratory testing then staged supported the presence of bound signs or symptoms. Currently, there's no accredited vaccine for HIV or AIDS. Current medication choices are combos consisting of a minimum of 3 medications happiness to a minimum of 2 sorts, or "classes," of antiretroviral agents.
- Track 18-1Treatment & Vaccination
- Track 18-2Sexually Transmitted Diseases
- Track 18-3Immune Responses
- Track 18-4AIDS and Behavioural Studies
An autoimmune disorder could be a condition arising from associate abnormal immunologic response to a standard part. Here are a unit a minimum of eighty styles of reaction diseases. Common symptoms embody low grade fever and feeling tired. The cause is mostly unknown. Some reaction diseases like lupus run in families, and bound cases could also be triggered by infections or alternative environmental factors. Some common diseases that area unit typically thought of reaction embody disorder, DM kind one, Graves' disease, inflammatory intestine, psoriasis, arthritis, and general autoimmune disease. The diagnosing will be tough to work out.
- Track 20-1Signs and Symptoms
- Track 20-2Pathophysiology
- Track 20-3Cryptic Determinants/Molecular Sequestration
- Track 20-4Systemic Lupus Erythematous
- Track 20-5Systemic Lupus Erythematous
- Track 20-6Hygiene Hypothesis
- Track 20-7Molecular Mimicry
- Track 20-8Rheumatology and Gastroenterology
Epidemiology is that the study and analysis of the distribution determinants of health and illness conditions in outlined populations. It the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy selections and evidence-based observe by distinguishing risk factors for illness and targets for preventive care. Major areas of medicine study embrace illness causing, transmission, eruption investigation, illness police investigation, rhetorical medical specialty, activity medical specialty, screening, bio monitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects like in clinical trials.
Epidemiologists admit different scientific disciplines like biology to rise perceive illness processes, statistics to create economical use of the information and draw applicable conclusions, social sciences to rise perceive proximate and distal causes, and engineering for exposure assessment.
- Track 21-1Etymology
- Track 21-2Molecular Pathology
- Track 21-3Legal Interpretation
- Track 21-4Population-based Health Management
- Track 21-5Applied field Epidemiology
- Track 21-6Validity: Precision and Bias
Immunotherapy is that the "treatment of illness by causing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response". Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immunologic response are classified as activation immunotherapies, whereas immunotherapies that cut back or suppress art classified as suppression immunotherapies. Immunomodulatory regimens usually have fewer aspect effects than existing medication, together with less potential for making resistance once treating microbic illness. Cell-based immunotherapies are effective for a few cancers. Immune effector cells like lymphocytes, macrophages, nerve fibre cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), etc., work along to defend the body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the surface of neoplasm cells.
Cancer medical specialty is a knowledge base branch of biology that's involved with understanding the role of the system within the progression and development of cancer; the foremost well-known application is cancer therapy that utilises the system as a treatment for cancer. Cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting are supported protection against development of tumors in animal systems and identification of targets for immune recognition of human cancer. Cancer medical specialty is a knowledge base branch of biology involved with the role of the system within the progression and development of cancer the foremost well-known application is cancer therapy, wherever the system is employed to treat cancer.
- Track 22-1Immunomodulators
- Track 22-2Activation Immunotherapies
- Track 22-3Vaccination
- Track 22-4Helminthic Therapies
- Track 22-5Immunosuppressive Drugs
- Track 22-6Immune Recovery
- Track 22-7T-cell Adoptive Transfer
In terms of contemporary biology and genetic science, a ordering is that the genetic material of an organism. Infective agent genomes may be composed of either RNA or deoxyribonucleic acid. The genomes of RNA viruses may be either fibre or double-stranded RNA, and should contain one or a lot of separate RNA molecules. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes have deoxyribonucleic acid genomes. Archaea have one circular body. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequences that carry the directions to create proteins area unit cryptography sequences. The proportion of the ordering occupied by cryptography sequences varies wide. Noncoding sequences embrace introns, sequences for non-coding RNAs, regulative regions, and repetitive deoxyribonucleic acid.
- Track 23-1Virus genomes
- Track 23-2Coding sequences
- Track 23-3Genome Evolution
- Track 23-4Molecular pathological epidemiology
- Track 23-5Whole genome sequencing
The cell is that the basic structural, practical and biological unit of all grasp living organisms. Cell is that the smallest unit of life that may replicate severally and therefore the cells square measure usually known as the building blocks of life. The study of cells is named cell biology. Cells encompass protoplasm closed in at intervals a membrane that contains several biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids. 2 completely different types of genetic material exist: polymer (DNA) and RNA (RNA). Cells use deoxyribonucleic acid for his or her long info storage. The biological info contained in Associate in nursing organism is encoded in its deoxyribonucleic acid sequence.
- Track 24-1Genetic Material
- Track 24-2Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic
- Track 24-3Cellular Processes
- Track 24-4Multicellularity
- Track 24-5Protein Synthesis
- Track 24-6Cell Division
The specificity of the bond between protein and substance has created the protein a wonderful tool for the detection of gear by a spread of diagnostic techniques. Antibodies specific for a desired substance may be conjugated with an atom radio or fluorescent label or with a colour-forming catalyst so as to sight it. However, the similarity between some antigens will result in false positives and different errors in such tests by antibodies cross-reacting with antigens that are not precise matches.
- Track 25-1Autoimmunity
- Track 25-2Allergy Serology
- Track 25-3Immunodeficiency
- Track 25-4Neuroimmunology
- Track 25-5Immunochemistry
- Track 25-6Infectious Immunology
Eco medicine is acknowledging base field combining aspects of medicine with ecology, biology, physiology, and evolution. The sector of Eco medicine, whereas young, seeks to allow a final perspective for proximate mechanisms of medicine. Classical, or thought, medicine works arduous to regulate variation (inbred/domestic model organisms, parasite-free environments, etc.) and asks questions about mechanisms and practicality of the system employing a theory technique. Study of the trade-offs between immunity and different physiological mechanisms square measure a central study topic at intervals the sector, however are enlarged to incorporate roles in species and individual variation, sex, social aspects, and sexual union system variations, and progress is additionally being created to develop ways to explore this variation. Several studies involve in vivo laboratory experiments; however there are recent demand immunologists to check immune variation additional in wild animals especially.
The behavioural system could be a phrase coined by the psychological human Mark Schaller to ask a set of psychological mechanisms that permit individual organisms to notice the potential presence of disease-causing parasites in their immediate surroundings, and to have interaction in behaviours that stop contact with those objects and people.
- Track 26-1Clinical Trails
- Track 26-2Randomized Controlled
- Track 26-3Ecological Study
- Track 26-4Epidemiology Study
- Track 26-5Analysis of Clinical Trails
- Track 26-6Implications of Immunology
- Track 26-7Psychological Sciences
- Track 26-8Suppression Immunotherapies
Microbiology may be a branch of life science involved with the interference, identification and treatment of infectious diseases. Additionally, this field of science studies varied clinical applications of microbes for the development of health. The area unit four styles of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: microorganism, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one style of infectious super molecule referred to as particle.
Infections are also caused by microorganism, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The infective agent that causes the illness is also exogenous (acquired from associate external supply environmental, animal or people, e.g. Influenza) or endogenous. Identification of associate agent for a minor wellness is as easy as clinical presentation like channel illness and skin infections. So as to form an informed estimate on that germ might be inflicting the illness, medical specialty factors have to be compelled to be thought of like the patient's probability of exposure to the suspected organism and also the presence and prevalence of a microbe strain during a community. Additionally to medication being specific to an exact reasonably organism (bacteria, fungi, etc.) some medication area unit specific to an exact genus or species of organism, and cannot work on different organisms.
- Track 27-1Bacterial
- Track 27-2Viral
- Track 27-3Parasitic
- Track 27-4 Fungal
- Track 27-5Cause for Transmission
- Track 27-6Biochemical Tests
- Track 27-7Microbial Culture
- Track 27-8Polymerase Chain Reaction